Scientific Name: Setaria pumila

Common Name: yellow foxtail

Other Common Names: yellow bristlegrass, pigeongrass

Synonyms: Chaetochloa glauca, Chaetochloa lutescens, Panicum glaucum, Setaria glauca, Setaria lutescens

Habit: Plants germinate in spring and compete with crops during summer. Seed production starts in mid to late summer. Reproduces by seed. Plants grow in clumbs and lack stolons or rhizomes.

Leaves: Leaves are light green, up to 1 1/2 in wide at maturity, and have long sparse hairs on the lower 2/3. Ligule is hairy and plants lack auricles.

Identifying Characteristics: Ligule is hairy, stems and lower 2/3 of leaf are hairy. Plants lack auricles and do not have stolons or rhizomes. Plants have characteristic foxtail seed head that is long but does not nod.

Flower Seed Head: A bristly spike on the end of a long, slender, naked stem. Seedhead is typically long ( 2 in) and does not nod.

Seed Fruit: Seed are 3 to 5 mm long and covered with upper and lower sheath (palea and lemma) that have pronounced veins. Seed often have bristles that arise from the scar. These bristles may or may not be present.

Where Found: Typically found in cultivated areas following a tillage event. May occur in open areas such as the border of rock driveways or in highly disrupted turfgrass.

  • Life cycle: summer annual

  • Plant type: Grass

  • Auricle: not present

  • Plant family: Poaceae

  • Leaf arrangement: rolled in bud

  • Hair surface: hairs on basal half only

  • Ligule: hairy

  • Length: 1-2 mm; 2-3 mm

  • Root structure: fibrous

  • Seed head: bristly

  • Width: less than 5 mm; 6 to 15 mm

  • Grass stem: flat or oval