Scientific Name: Fraxinus americana

Common Name: white ash

Other Common Names: biltmore ash, biltmore white ash, cane ash, smallseed white ash

Synonyms: Fraxinus americana var. biltmoreana, Fraxinus americana var. crassifolia, Fraxinus americana var. curtissii, Fraxinus americana var. juglandifolia, Fraxinus americana var. microcarpa, Fraxinus biltmoreana

Leaves: Leaves are deciduous, opposite, pinnately compound, 20-38 cm long, leaflets usually 7(5-9), short-stalked, ovate to ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, acuminate, 6-13 cm long and 3-6 cm wide, sometimes with a few teeth near the tip, dark green and smooth above, whitish below

Identifying Characteristics: Olive family (Oleaceae). Native trees growing to 20-30 m tall, maintaining a central leader (strong apical dominance) in youth with an even distribution of branches, developing a dense, conical or rounded crown at maturity. The trunk is long, straight, and free of branches for most of its length (except when open grown). The bark is thick, dark gray, with a uniform, diamond-shaped ridge and furrow pattern.

Flower Seed Head: Flowers are numerous, very small, green to purplish, in small branched clusters near the branch tips, usually either male (staminate) or female (pistillate), a single tree usually bearing only one sex (the species dioecious)

Seed Fruit: Fruits are samaras 2.5-5 cm long, hanging in clusters, with a narrow wing extending about 1/3-1/4 of the way down the cylindrical body. The common name is in reference to the white color of the wood

Where Found: White ash grows over most of eastern North America, absent only from the outer Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains. It occurs from Nova Scotia west to eastern Minnesota and south to Texas and northern Florida, northward barely into southern Quebec and Ontario. It is cultivated in Hawaii

  • Life cycle: perennial

  • Milky sap: Not Present

  • Plant type: Tree

  • Thorns: Not Present

  • Plant family: Oleaceae

  • Leaf arrangement: opposite

  • Leaf shape: oval

  • Ochrea: Not Present

  • Leaf margin: entire

  • Stem hairs: no hairs

  • Flower color: green

  • Growth habit: woody bush or tree

  • Stem: round or oval

  • Leaf structure: pinnate

  • Leaf hairs: no hairs

  • Flower symmetry: not symmetrical

  • Leaf stalk: longer than leaf