Scientific Name: Echinochloa frumentacea

Common Name: billion-dollar grass

Synonyms: Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea, Panicum frumentaceum

Identifying Characteristics: Billion-dollar grass is an introduced annual. It has coarse leaves and varies from one to five feet in height depending on available moisture and fertility.Conversely, wild barnyard grass has seed with conspicuous awns and a more open-branched panicle. Billion-dollar grass produces a much heavier seed yield than the wild species. There are approximately 155,000 seeds per pound.

Flower Seed Head: The seed-head is a compact panicle-type infloresence four to eight inches long, purplish in color, with awnless seed.

Where Found: This plant is widely adapted to the entire Northeast as it matures in 60-90 days. It grows well in wet soils but will also grow on well-drained upland soils. Billion-dollar grass is somewhat tolerant of low soil pH (4.5) and salinity of 2,000 parts per million.

  • Life cycle: summer annual

  • Plant type: Grass

  • Plant family: Poaceae