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Weed Identification

billion-dollar grass



Scientific Name

Echinochloa frumentacea

Synonyms (former Scientific Names):

Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea
Panicum frumentaceum

Identifying Characteristics

Billion-dollar grass is an introduced annual. It has coarse leaves and varies from one to five feet in height depending on available moisture and fertility.Conversely, wild barnyard grass has seed with conspicuous awns and a more open-branched panicle. Billion-dollar grass produces a much heavier seed yield than the wild species. There are approximately 155,000 seeds per pound.

Flower Seed Head

The seed-head is a compact panicle-type infloresence four to eight inches long, purplish in color, with awnless seed.

Where Found

This plant is widely adapted to the entire Northeast as it matures in 60-90 days. It grows well in wet soils but will also grow on well-drained upland soils. Billion-dollar grass is somewhat tolerant of low soil pH (4.5) and salinity of 2,000 parts per million.

Life Cycle

summer annual

Plant Type